Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread globally. Early and dynamic detection of prognostic factors is essential to improve the ability to treat COVID-19. The present study aimed to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with the length of hospital stay and disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tabriz, Iran.
Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 260 early diagnosed cases with COVID-19 hospitalized at two COVID-19 specialized hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, from April 20 to June 20, 2020. Patients’ medical records were used to collect the data. Severe COVID-19 outcomes included need for intubation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, including chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis in SPSS 16.
Results: The need for O2 therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.23; 95% CI: 1.15‒15.51; P=0.03), the increased creatinine levels (AOR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.25‒5.88; P=0.01), and the white blood cell counts (AOR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.12‒5.33; P=0.02) were the main risk factors associated with prolonged hospital stay. Also, having kidney diseases (AOR=7.33; 95% CI=1.94‒27.70; P=0.01), elevated the white blood cell counts (AOR=4.52; 95% CI=1.67‒12.26; P=0.003), and lung diseases (AOR=3.97; 95% CI: 1.18‒13.29; P=0.03) were significant among the predictors of the disease severity.
Conclusion: According to the results, hypoxia and underlying diseases might lead to unwanted outcomes. The risk factors identified here confirm previous information and could be helpful to guide early clinical decision-making to reduce the mortality rates and improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19.