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J Res Clin Med. 2022;10: 13.
doi: 10.34172/jrcm.2022.013
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Original Article

Factors associated with disease severity and length of stay in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tabriz, Iran: A retrospective cohort study

Elnaz Asghari 1 ORCID logo, Mina Hosseinzadeh 2* ORCID logo, Nader Mahdavi 3 ORCID logo, Vahide Mahmoodi 4 ORCID logo

1 Medical-Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Community Health Nursing, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Epidemiology, Student Research Committee, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
4 Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Science, Tabriz, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Corresponding Author: Mina Hosseinzadeh, Email: , Email: m.hosseinzadeh63@gmail.com

Abstract

Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread globally. Early and dynamic detection of prognostic factors is essential to improve the ability to treat COVID-19. The present study aimed to determine clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with the length of hospital stay and disease severity in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Tabriz, Iran.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 260 early diagnosed cases with COVID-19 hospitalized at two COVID-19 specialized hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, from April 20 to June 20, 2020. Patients’ medical records were used to collect the data. Severe COVID-19 outcomes included need for intubation, admission to the intensive care unit, or death. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics, including chi-squared test, Mann-Whitney U test, and logistic regression analysis in SPSS 16.

Results: The need for O2 therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=4.23; 95% CI: 1.15‒15.51; P=0.03), the increased creatinine levels (AOR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.25‒5.88; P=0.01), and the white blood cell counts (AOR=2.44; 95% CI: 1.12‒5.33; P=0.02) were the main risk factors associated with prolonged hospital stay. Also, having kidney diseases (AOR=7.33; 95% CI=1.94‒27.70; P=0.01), elevated the white blood cell counts (AOR=4.52; 95% CI=1.67‒12.26; P=0.003), and lung diseases (AOR=3.97; 95% CI: 1.18‒13.29; P=0.03) were significant among the predictors of the disease severity.

Conclusion: According to the results, hypoxia and underlying diseases might lead to unwanted outcomes. The risk factors identified here confirm previous information and could be helpful to guide early clinical decision-making to reduce the mortality rates and improve the clinical outcomes of COVID-19.

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Submitted: 25 Apr 2021
Revision: 05 Jul 2021
Accepted: 09 Jul 2021
ePublished: 01 Aug 2022
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