J Res Clin Med. 2021;9(1): 6.
doi: 10.34172/jrcm.2021.006
  Abstract View: 1093
  PDF Download: 667


Organ system effects and reinfection of COVID-19: A Review

Inderbir Padda 1* ORCID logo, Nimrat Khehra 2 ORCID logo, Urooj Jaferi 3, Dina Mosabbeh 4, Harshan Atwal 2, Abbas Musaji 4, Sufle Bhullar 5

1 University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
2 Saint James School of Medicine, St Vincent & Grenadines
3 All Saints University School of Medicine, Dominica
4 Windsor University School of Medicine, St. Kitts, West Indies
5 St. Matthew’s University School of Medicine, West Bay, Cayman Islands


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and its effects on the organ systems have been summarized in recent literature with predominant pulmonary characteristics as a hallmark of the COVID-19 virus. Considering its accelerated appearance from Wuhan, China, in December 2019, extrapulmonary effects have been reported globally of SARS-CoV-2 involving the central nervous system (CNS), cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, renal, and hematologic systems; thus, the potential mechanisms, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics, management, outcome, and case reports per organ system are summarized in depth. The authors interpreted articles composed of case reports, case-series, meta-analysis, cohort studies, retrospective studies, and narrative reviews focusing on COVID-19 confirmed cases and their effects on the organ systems. Prevalent clinical organ system complexities include pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolism, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, myocarditis progressing to fulminant myocarditis, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, liver dysfunction, encephalopathy, encephalitis, meningitis, intracerebral hemorrhage, acute kidney injury, and hypercoagulability causing stroke and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). This comprehensive literature review article will help clinicians and researchers gain insight about SARS-CoV-2 and its diverse effects on multiple organ systems involved, therefore help implement prospective management and preventative measures.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Coronavirus, Pulmonary, Pneumonia, Extrapulmonary, Cardiovascular, Myocarditis, Vasculitis
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Submitted: 01 Dec 2020
Revision: 18 Dec 2020
Accepted: 18 Dec 2020
ePublished: 17 Feb 2021
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