J Res Clin Med. 2021;9(1): 31.
doi: 10.34172/jrcm.2021.031
  Abstract View: 174
  PDF Download: 206


Treating Umbilical Granuloma with Topical Corticosteroid: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Indra Sandinirwan 1* ORCID logo, Henry Leo 2, Hasanah Kahuna 3, Permata Putri Karina 4

1 Department of Pediatrics, Sagaranten Hospital Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia
2 Department of Pediatrics, Bintuni Public Hospital, West Papua, Indonesia
3 Emergency Department, Sekarwangi Public Hospital, West Java, Indonesia
4 Infectious Disease Research Center/Pusat Studi Infeksi Klinis (PUSDI) of Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, West Java, Indonesiaa


Background: Umbilical granuloma so far can be treated with surgery or with silver nitrate. In limited facilities such as in remote areas where the surgeon is limited, pharmacological therapy with silver nitrate or topical steroid can be given. However, treatment with silver nitrate requires medical personnel and has unfavorable adverse effects if done by improper technique. This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical steroid for treating an umbilical granuloma compared to silver nitrate therapy.
Method: The literature search was done using search engines including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. Literature selection was performed with limitations from 2000 to 2020 to get the novelty and written in the English language with a target population of infants less than 6 months were included. To retrieve the articles, topical corticosteroids, topical steroids, and umbilical granuloma were used as keywords.
Results: The findings from the included studies show similar sample characteristics. The study conducted by Brodsgaard et al. had an older mean sample age than the study of Ogawa et al. (53.4 vs 31 days). The risk of topical steroid treatment failure on an individual study conducted by Brodsgaard et al. and Ogawa et al. was 3.0 (0.33–27.23, p = 0.33) and 0.94 (0.40–2.21; p = 0.33), respectively. Overall analysis, the risk of treatment failure was 1.09 (0.49–2.43, p = 0.82), there was no difference between the two interventions.
Conclusions: One of the umbilical granuloma treatment options that can be considered is topical steroids, such as clobetasol proprionate 0.05% or betamethasone valerate 0.12%. When compared to silver nitrate, topical steroids have a longer therapeutic healing time but with a better safety profile. The non-inferiority study of topical steroids to silver nitrate has not been met yet.
Keywords: umbilicus, granuloma, infants, lump, discharge
First Name
Last Name
Email Address
Security code

Abstract View: 166

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

PDF Download: 206

Your browser does not support the canvas element.

Submitted: 11 Nov 2020
Revision: 09 Jan 2021
Accepted: 17 Jan 2021
ePublished: 05 Aug 2021
EndNote EndNote

(Enw Format - Win & Mac)

BibTeX BibTeX

(Bib Format - Win & Mac)

Bookends Bookends

(Ris Format - Mac only)

EasyBib EasyBib

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Medlars Medlars

(Txt Format - Win & Mac)

Mendeley Web Mendeley Web
Mendeley Mendeley

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Papers Papers

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

ProCite ProCite

(Ris Format - Win & Mac)

Reference Manager Reference Manager

(Ris Format - Win only)

Refworks Refworks

(Refworks Format - Win & Mac)

Zotero Zotero

(Ris Format - Firefox Plugin)